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HTTP 1.1 vs HTTP 2.0 Performance Comparison on API Service

I’ve had a complex requirement on current project, that is moving all my API services from HTTP 1.1 to HTTP 2.0. Based on the several articles online that i found after googling, it seems that HTTP 2.0 is much faster compared to HTTP 1.1, but that metrics shows browser based request only. Doesnt exactly represent my current condition, which is a native mobile application firing HTTP API request.

So in order to measure performance of both HTTP version, i install two instance of Apache Tomcat 9.0M22 which provides HTTP 1.1 and HTTP 2.0, and create a simple test unit using curl to fetch an image which located on both instance.

Here is the curl that i used to fetch image using HTTP 1.1

curl -I,-Greentea-Brownies-with-Cashew-Ovomaltine-banner1.png

And here is curl for HTTP 2.0

curl -I --http2,-Greentea-Brownies-with-Cashew-Ovomaltine-banner1.png -k

Fire my unit test for 500 times, and measure the result. Here is the complete graphic


It seems that for fetching a plain image, HTTP 1.1 took less time compared to HTTP 2.0. Perhaps due to my HTTP 1.1 requests are using an insecure connection, while HTTP 2.0 enforcing an SSL connection.

Feel free to look at my code here,

It seems that for my case, HTTP 2.0 not yielding a better performance compared to HTTP 1.1. So i guess i’ll stick with HTTP 1.1 for a while.

Error “Expecting: TRUSTED CERTIFICATE” when Deploying .cer Certificate on Nginx

Got this very weird error when adding .key and .cer on my nginx SSL, “140387178489504:error:0906D06C:PEM routines:PEM_read_bio:no start line:pem_lib.c:703:Expecting: TRUSTED CERTIFICATE”. It’s very weird because it works well previously.

At first i tought it was because i need to convert .cer to .crt, but even i cannot convert my .cer file using openssl. So i come to a conclusion that somehow there was an issue on my .cer file. First my .cer file looks fine when im opening it using vi


But when im open it using vi -b (vi -b /home/certificate/my.cer), it shows some weird symbols.

<ff><fe>-^@-^@-^@-^@-^@B^@E^@G^@I^@N^@ ^@C^@E^@R^@T^@I^@F^@I^@C^@A^@T^@E^@-^@-^@-^@-^@-^@^M^@

Somehow it happens because im transferring my .cer file between my windows desktop to my linux server environment. Using dos2unix command from my windows environment solve this issue,

C:\Users\edw>dos2unix C:\my.cer
dos2unix: converting UTF-16LE file C:\Users\edw\Downloads\selfcare.cer to ANSI_X
3.4-1968 Unix format...

i have dos2unix on my windows environment from cygwin installment.